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Bianca Hopes "The B" Group

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Andrew Martin
Andrew Martin

Cs 1.6 Aim Cfg 2012 13



The bioequivalence limits may suggest that a variance of 25% between an originator brand and a generic product is possible. However, this may not actually be the case. A study was performed which investigated 12 years of bioequivalence data submitted to the FDA, comparing the generic and originator measures from 2070 single-dose clinical bioequivalence studies of orally administered generic medicine products approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 1996 to 2007. This study showed that the average difference in absorption into the body between the generic and the originator was 3.5% and is comparable to differences between two different batches of an originator drug[14]. However, it should be noted that variations between batches of originator drugs may themselves threaten patient safety. In 2012, Patel et al. reported that (in 2010) patients prescribed Lamotrigine (LTG, an anti-epileptic medication) experienced unexplained toxicity[15]. When investigated, the manufacturer (GlaxoSmithKline) accepted responsibility for an altered formulation due to changes made to the manufacturing process.




Cs 1.6 Aim Cfg 2012 13



In the US, individual physicians have expressed strong opinions about generic medicines over the years, with opponents of their use generally being more vocal. In 1997, Banahan and Kolassa[119, 120] reported a comprehensive analysis of physicians' attitudes toward generic medications, finding that overall, physicians' attitudes toward generic medicines were fairly neutral, as indicated by their answers to two key questions from their nationwide survey. In a separate study (from 2001), respondents expressed modest support for generic substitution, but had doubts about originator-generic equivalence[121]. More recently, Shrank et al. have reported studies addressing the relationship between generic medicine prescribing and physician practice location and specialty (i.e. higher income catchment areas equated to higher generic prescribing rates and generalist physicians prescribed more generic medicines than specialist physicians)[122]. Shrank et al. have also shown that persistence in generic medicine use is higher than with branded products in those patients benefitting from incentives offered by medical insurance companies and pharmacy drug purchase plans[123]. Perhaps most interesting is that, in 2012, Shrank et al. found that a meaningful proportion of physicians expressed negative perceptions about generic medications, representing a potential barrier to generic use. The researchers recommended that policymakers trying to encourage generic use should consider educational campaigns targeting older physicians[123].


The later Model B with 512 MB RAM, was released on 15 October 2012 and was initially released with new standard memory split files (arm256_start.elf, arm384_start.elf, arm496_start.elf) with 256 MB, 384 MB, and 496 MB CPU RAM, and with 256 MB, 128 MB, and 16 MB video RAM, respectively. But about one week later, the foundation released a new version of start.elf that could read a new entry in config.txt (gpu_mem=xx) and could dynamically assign an amount of RAM (from 16 to 256 MB in 8 MB steps) to the GPU, obsoleting the older method of splitting memory, and a single start.elf worked the same for 256 MB and 512 MB Raspberry Pis.[76]


Technology writer Glyn Moody described the project in May 2011 as a "potential BBC Micro 2.0", not by replacing PC compatible machines but by supplementing them.[234] In March 2012 Stephen Pritchard echoed the BBC Micro successor sentiment in ITPRO.[235] Alex Hope, co-author of the Next Gen report, is hopeful that the computer will engage children with the excitement of programming.[236] Co-author Ian Livingstone suggested that the BBC could be involved in building support for the device, possibly branding it as the BBC Nano.[237] The Centre for Computing History strongly supports the Raspberry Pi project, feeling that it could "usher in a new era".[238] Before release, the board was showcased by ARM's CEO Warren East at an event in Cambridge outlining Google's ideas to improve UK science and technology education.[239]


In October 2012, the Raspberry Pi won T3's Innovation of the Year award,[242] and futurist Mark Pesce cited a (borrowed) Raspberry Pi as the inspiration for his ambient device project MooresCloud.[243] In October 2012, the British Computer Society reacted to the announcement of enhanced specifications by stating, "it's definitely something we'll want to sink our teeth into."[244]


As of January 2012[update], enquiries about the board in the United Kingdom have been received from schools in both the state and private sectors, with around five times as much interest from the latter. It is hoped that businesses will sponsor purchases for less advantaged schools.[252] The CEO of Premier Farnell said that the government of a country in the Middle East has expressed interest in providing a board to every schoolgirl, to enhance her employment prospects.[253][254]


The Foundation's goal was to offer two versions, priced at US$25 and $35. They started accepting orders for the higher priced Model B on 29 February 2012,[277] the lower cost Model A on 4 February 2013.[278] and the even lower cost (US$20) A+ on 10 November 2014.[107] On 26 November 2015, the cheapest Raspberry Pi yet, the Raspberry Pi Zero, was launched at US$5 or 4.[279]


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